Subject Index - Kids Konnect Mon, 01 Sep 2014 16:00:39 -0500 en-gb Archaeology

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1.  Archaeology is a science that studies past cultures and the way people lived based on the things they left behind. Archaeology helps us understand not only where and when people lived on the earth, but also why and how they have lived.
2.  The things that people leave behind are called artifacts. Archaeologists can tell a lot about people by looking at their houses, clothes, bones, and even their garbage. In fact, a garbage site is one of the best places to find artifacts of the past.
3.  Most artifacts are buried in the ground and archaeologists must dig them up. This process is called excavation.

4.  Any place where human activity occurred and where artifacts are found is called an archaeological site.

5.  There are two kinds of archaeological sites. One is called a prehistoric site. The other is called a historic site.

6.  The prehistoric site is one were the artifacts that are found are dated before people began writing records. These sites are more difficult because scientists can’t look up information in any type of book or encyclopedia. At a historic site, archaeologists can look up information about the objects they find.

7.  Archaeologists dig in a scientific way with neat, organized, square holes on a grid system.   By doing this they can record everything they find and where the items were found.

8.  The goal of archaeological research is to find cause and effect explanations of human behavior over the centuries. Studying the past actually helps scientists understand the present and can sometimes help scientists predict the future.

9.  The archaeologists uses many tools in order to excavate a site. They use: handpicks, brushes, pointed bricklayer's trowels , hand shovels, dustpans, whisk brooms, stakes, string, cameras, notebooks and pencils. Sometimes they even use a bulldozer.

10.  For a long time scientists thought the beginning of civilization began in Mesopotamia’s Fertile Crescent. However, archaeologists now know the earliest known human remains were found around the ancient rock formation of Kibish, Ethiopia. The facts that early human remain were found there makes many believe that the first humans came from Africa.
All Archaeology
Archaeological Digs
Archaeological Institute of America
Archaeology FAQ
Archaeology for Kids
Archaeology Magazine 
Archaeology Southwest
Dig: Archaeology Magazine for Kids
National Park Service:  Archaeology for Kids
Science Daily
Ten Cool Archaeology Sites:  National Geographic For Kids
What is Underwater Archaeology
Wikipedia: Archaeology
Fast Facts Resources
National Park Service:  Archaeology for Kids

]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Thu, 06 Sep 2007 13:23:18 -0500




1.  An astronaut is a person who is training to travel in space.  NASA is the agency that trains United States men and women to serve as  commanders, pilots, and mission specialists aboard spacecraft.  Politicians, educators, scientists, and private citizens have flown in space, also.  The Soviet Union call their space travelers cosmonauts.

2.  As of October 4, 2007, a total of 463 people from 34 countries have traveled into space.  These numbers include 415 men and 48 women.

3.  Yuri Gagarin, cosmonaut from the Soviet Union, was the first person to travel into space.  His flight took place on April 12, 1961, aboard Vostok 1.  John Glenn, astronaut from the United States, was the first American to orbit the earth.  His flight occurred on February 20, 1962, aboard Friendship 7.

4.  Alan Shepard was the second person and the first American to go into space. He did so May 5, 1961, aboard Freedom 7.  He flew into space again in 1971, commanding the Apollo 14 mission to the moon (January 31-February 9, 1971). 

5.  On June 16, 1963, Colonel-Engineer Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova  was a Soviet cosmonaut and the first woman in space. Sally Ride, astronaut from the United States, became the first American woman in space in 1983.

6.  Neil Armstrong, astronaut for the United States, became the first person to walk on the moon.  His moon walk took place on July 20, 1969.  He traveled to the moon aboard Apollo 11.

7.  Sergei Kirkalyov, cosmonaut from the Soviet Union, has spent the most time in space.  He was aboard the space station for 2 years and 73 days.

8.  Laika, a stray dog trained and chosen by the Russians for the expedition, became the first living being to go into space.  He also became the first death.  He died from overheating a few hours after the launch.  Ham the Chimp was the first living American being that traveled into space.  He was also called Astrochimp.  On January 31, 1961, Ham was secured in a Project Mercury capsule.  He had been trained to perform tasks while in the capsule, and he did everything he was asked to do.   His flight lasted 16 minutes and 39 seconds. The capsule then splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean.  

9.  An Astronaut can be up to 2 inches taller returning from space. The cartilage disks in the spine expand in the absence of gravity.

10.  Astronauts' footprints and Lunar Rover tire tracks will stay on the Moon for millions of years. There is no wind to blow them away.



]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Fri, 16 Feb 2007 10:33:53 -0600









Fast Facts Resources





1.  In Ancient Greece a man named Democritus figured out that every single thing in the universe must be made up of tiny particles that can’t be cut anymore. He called these particles “atoms”, which in Greek means “uncuttable”.
2.  An atom is the smallest particle of an element still having the same chemical properties of the element.

3.The particles smaller then atom are called subatomic particles.

4.  At the center of the atom is a core called a nucleus, which is made up of these subatomic particles called protons and neutrons. Whizzing around the nucleus at incredible speeds are tiny particles called electrons.

5.  Electrons are extremely small. You could fit 2,000 of them into one proton.

6.  There are over 100 different kinds of atoms.

7.  By combining theses atoms in different ways, we can make anything in the universe.

8.  Atoms are so tiny that they can’t be seen, even with the most powerful microscope.

9.  Even though protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom, most of the nucleus is empty space.

10.  When atoms combine together they form molecules.







]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 12:56:14 -0600













1.  An avalanche occurs when a large mass of ice and snow breaks away from the side of a mountain and surges down the mountain with tremendous speed and force.

2.  Some avalanches are small and only a minimal amount of snow moves down the mountain. When this occurs it is called sloughing.

3.  Most avalanches are triggered by people skiing, snowboarding, hiking, or snowmobiling on top of the snow.

4.  Avalanches kill more than 150 people throughout the world every year.

5.  When a slab of snow begins to move down the mountain it can reach speeds of 80 miles per hour (130 kilometers).

6.  Most avalanches occur within 24 hours after a storm drops 12 or more inches (30 centimeters) of fresh snow.

7.  Other areas that are extremely vulnerable to avalanches are where layers of wind-driven snow has accumulated.

8.  People that access areas where avalanches are known to occur need to find out from park rangers if that part of the mountain has been declared to be safe.

9.  People are encouraged to never travel into risky areas alone.

10.  People skiing or snowboarding in areas where avalanches occur need to let someone know where they will be, and they also are encouraged to wear an avalanche beacon, so if they are trapped the rescuers will be able to find them.
Fast Facts Resources
National Geographic


]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 13:05:18 -0600
Bacteria & Viruses





1.  Bacteria help our bodies in several ways.  They help with the digestion of food, and they help us to produce needed vitamins. Almost all bacteria are helpful to our health and well-being.  Only a few types of bacteria cause disease. Many harmful organisms in our bodies are destroyed by bacteria.


2.  Helpful bacteria help to purify water and they also are used to help breakdown the oil caused by oil spills.


3.  Vaccines are created by using weakened bacteria.


4.  Bacteria also help to make sourdough bread, yogurt, milk and cheese.


5.  There are more bacterial cells in your body than there are human cells. 


6.   Viruses are about a thousand times smaller than bacteria and bacteria are much smaller than most human cells.


7.  Scientists estimate that bacteria produce nearly half the oxygen found in the atmosphere.


8.  Other than causing sore throat, cough, mild respiratory illness like runny nose without fever, a virus can also cause severe illness such as pneumonia.


9.  A virus must have a host cell (bacteria, plant or animal) in which to live and make more viruses. Outside of a host cell, viruses cannot function.


10.  A virus can enter our bodies through our nose, mouth or a break in the skin.  Once they are inside the body, they must find a host cell to infect.



Dr. Green
Fact Monster
How Stuff Works:  How Long Can a Germ Live in a Room?
KidsHealth:  What Are Germs?
Kinds of Germs
Mayo Clinic:  Germs
Net Doctor:  Viruses and Bacteria
What is a Germ?

WikiHow:  Difference Between a Virus and a Bacteria


Fast Facts Resources
Dr. Green
Mayo Clinic:  Germs

KidsHealth:  What Are Germs?



]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 02 Sep 2012 20:50:10 -0500









1.  Biomes are the world's major communities where insects, animals, plants and people live in a certain type of climate.


2.  The climate and geography of an area determines what type of biome can exist in that region.


3.  Each biome consists of many ecosystems.


4.  Here are the commonly grouped biomes: Desert, Deciduous Forest, Coniferous Forest, Arctic Tundra, 
Tropical Rainforest, Grasslands, Taiga.


5.  There are also Marine and Freshwater ecosystems that could be considered the water biomes.


6.  The Marine and Freshwater biomes are extremely important because water is the basis of all life.


7.  The earth's coldest biome is the tundra which has permanently frozen subsoil, called permafrost.


8.  All of the biomes need to be protected. Over the past several years, human activity has destroyed, 
exploited, or polluted many of the biomes.


9.  All living things are closely related to their environment and any change in a part, like an increase or decrease in one type of plant or animal, can cause a ripple effect of change through the entire biome.


10. Biomes have moved and changed many times throughout the history of the Earth.

Brain Pop:  Land Biomes
Earth Floor:  Biomes
Enchanted Learning:  Biomes
 Fact Monster:  Major Biomes of the World:
 Geography4Kids:  An Ecological System
National Geographic:  Biomes
SurfNetKids:  Biomes
World Biomes
World Biomes and Ecosystems
Fast Facts Resources
Brain Pop:  Land Biomes
World Biomes
World Biomes and Ecosystems





]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 13:13:48 -0600
Black Holes





1.  A black hole is formed when a star is out of nuclear fuel which it needs to exist.  It grows smaller and smaller until it collapses under its own weight.

2.  While most stars end up as white dwarfs or neutron stars, black holes are the last evolutionary stage in the lifetimes of enormous stars that had been at least 10 or 15 times as massive as our own sun.

3.  Our Sun won’t and cannot become a black hole. Only stars with much more mass than the Sun can become a black hole.

4.  If someone fell into a black hole their feet would be pulled in faster than their head.  They would be stretched like a piece of spaghetti.

5.  According to Einstein's theories of relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light. Therefore once  something is inside a black hole it can never get out.

6.  The black hole emits no light due to its extremely powerful gravitational pull.

7.  Planets, light, and other matter must pass close to a black hole in order to be pulled into its grasp.

8.  Black holes are small in size, and because they are so small, distant, and dark, black holes cannot be directly observed.

9.  Black holes are shaped like a sphere and they can spin.

10. Astronomers believe that one black hole is born every day.


Black Holes and Beyond
Black Holes and Neutron Stars
Black Holes FAQ
Black Holes FAQ 1
Cambridge Relativity: Black Holes
CNN: Black Hole at Center of Milky Way
CNN: Science & Space…Runaway Black Hole Headed Our Way
Falling Into a Black Hole
Geometry Around Black Holes
How Stuff Works: How Black Holes Work
NASA: Black Hole Snacks
No Escape: The Truth About Black Holes
Science News: Black Hole Recipe…Slow Light, Swirl Atoms the Great Escape
Stringy Black Holes
The Search for Black Holes
The Space Place: Falling Into a Black Hole
Virtual Trips to Black Holes and Neutron Stars
What Happens to Black Holes?
What is a Black Hole? 

Fast Facts Resources
Hubble Site
NASA:   Black Holes






]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 13:19:49 -0600








1.  A blizzard is a severe snowstorm that usually has very cold temperatures and high winds. These two conditions create blowing snow.

2.  When a blizzard occurs it makes driving or walking very dangerous, because the whiteout conditions make it difficult to see.

3.  The National Weather Service defines blizzards as large amounts of falling or blowing snow with winds in excess of 35 mph and visibilities of less than ¼ of a mile for a period of more than 3 hours.

4.  Blizzards also create a wind chill effect that can be dangerous. The blowing winds and low temperature can cause frostbite and/or hyperthermia.

5.  Blizzards that occur on the East Coast of the United States are known as Nor’easters. Because of the Atlantic Ocean, the storm stalls over the coast and can sometimes last for 24 hours dumping huge amounts of snow over the area.

6.  Never eat frozen snow because it lowers the body temperature.

7.  If you are ever caught in a car during a blizzard, it is best to stay with the car. Many people have walked in circles, because they couldn’t see where they were going in the blinding snow.

8.  In 1888, two legendary storms occurred. The Schoolhouse Blizzard occurred across the Great Plains, stranding children in their schoolhouses. About 235 people died in this blizzard. Many of those were children that tried to walk home from school.

9.  The other blizzard that occurred is known as the Great Blizzard of 1888. New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut were hit with 40 to 50 inches of snow. The area was paralyzed and people were caught in their homes for up to a week. Over thirty people lost their lives in that storm.

10.  If you are located in an area where blizzards occur, you should make sure you have extra food and supplies. You should also have a radio with extra batteries, candles, a cell phone and lots of blankets. You should also plan on staying inside. Many times, children playing right outside of their homes have gotten lost in the blinding snow.




Fast Facts Resources
*  Blizzards


]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 13:29:55 -0600




1.  Bridges are structures built over railroad tracks, roads, rivers or some other obstacle.
They allow people or vehicles to cross from one side to another.

2.  Bridges must be built strong enough to safely support their own weight as well as the
weight of the people and vehicles that pass over it. The bridge must also be able to withstand earthquakes,
strong winds, freezing and thawing. Bridges need to be maintained just like roads and railroads.
They are all considered the infrastructure that supports the movement of a nation.Therefore, they need to be
watched carefully so they remain safe.

3.  There are six different types of bridges: cable-stayed bridges, truss bridges,
beam bridges, arch bridges, suspension bridges, and cantilever bridges.

4.  Before a bridge is built several factors are considered. Engineers have to look at the type of land
that exists where the bridge is going to be built. They also have to look at the purpose of the bridge.
The cost of the bridge also has to be considered.

5.  The oldest bridge in the world is the Zhaozhou Bridge in China. It is a stone-segmented arch bridge.
It was built in 605 A.D. It is still standing strong and is in use today.

6.  The Brooklyn Bridge was built in 1883 and it connects Manhattan and Brooklyn over the East River.
When it was built, it was the longest suspension bridge in the world.
It is one of the busiest bridges in the world with 145,000 vehicles crossing it every day.

7.  Many cultures throughout the world built rope suspension bridges to allow them access
over steep gorges and ravines.The Inca civilization in South America is well known for its suspension bridges.

8.  As of 2010, the longest suspension bridge in the world is the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge in Kobe, Japan.
It opened in 1998 and spans 6529 feet (1991 meters). This bridge is over a mile long.

9.  Six of the longest bridges in the world are in China and three are in the United States.
All three of the U.S. bridges are located in the state of Louisiana.
They are: Lake Pontchartraqin Causeway,  Manchac Swamp Bridge ,and Atchafalaya Basin Bridge.

10.  One of the most famous and beautiful bridges in the world is the Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco.
It is a suspension bridge that was built in 1937 and has a total length of 8981 feet (2737 meters)
and includes 80,000 miles (129000 kilometers) of wire in its two main cables.


Fast Facts Resources
Fact Monster
Science Kids

]]> (JIKOmetrix Support) Science Fri, 11 May 2007 10:32:32 -0500








1.  The Federal Cave Resource Protection Act of 1988 defines a cave as "any naturally occurring void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnected passageways beneath the surface of the earth."   Caves are also called caverns.

2.  Caves exist all over the world and come in many sizes and shapes. Some caves have an entrance at the earth’s surface, but many times they do not.

3.  Some caves are filled with air and others are filled with water.  Caves often contain sand, mud, clay, silt, or other sediment.

4  .When caves are discovered it is important they are protected. Their environment is fragile and can easily be destroyed when lighting, air, bacteria, and people enter their chambers.

5.  Many things can be learned from cave exploration and study. They have rare plants and animals. They also have very distinctive mineral formations, fossils and artifacts.

6.  Caves record the Earth’s history and climate.

7.  The mineral deposits that hang from the ceiling of a cave like an icicle are know as stalactites. The stalagmite is on the floor of the caves and grows up. They grow in pairs as water drops down the stalactite making it grow downward, and as the drops fall on the floor they begin to build upward forming the stalagmite.

8.  The eye can never adjust to total darkness, because there needs to be some light in order for any living thing to see. Therefore, the animals that live in caves have adapted to the darkness by having extraordinary hearing or antenna that help them survive.

9.  The greatest and longest cave system in the world is at Mammoth Cave Park in Kentucky, USA. It has about 367 miles (591 kilometers) of cave system. The deepest cave is Voronya Cave in Abkhazia, Georgia with a depth of 7,188 feet (2,191 meters). The largest cave in the world is the Sarawak Chamber in Sarawak, Malaysia. Its floor area is so big it could hold ten 747 jets nose to tail.

10.  Many people like to explore caves. These people are known as spelunkers.

Fast Facts Resources



]]> (Jan Belzer) Science Sun, 18 Feb 2007 13:36:09 -0600