Subject Index - Kids Konnect Mon, 28 Jul 2014 01:06:04 -0500 en-gb American Revolution



1.  The American Revolution, also known as the Revolutionary War, began in 1775.

2.  British soldiers and American patriots started the war with battles at Lexington 
and Concord, Massachusetts.

3.  Colonists in America wanted independence from England.

4.  The British government attempted to pass some laws, enforce several taxes, 
and increase more control over the colonies. The colonies strongly objected 
to these laws and taxes.  They wanted England to have no control over them.

5.  For ten years before the war actually started, there was a lot of tension 
between England and the colonies.

6.  The colonies had no central government at the beginning of the war, 
so delegates from all the colonies were sent to form the first Continental Congress.

7.  George Washington, a former military officer and wealthy Virginian, 
was appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Army.

8.  Members of the Continental Congress wrote a letter to King George of England 
outlining their complaints and declaring their independence from England.

9.  On July 4, 1776, the Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, 
in which the colonies declared their independence from England.

10.  The war ended in 1783, and the United States of America was born.
American Revolution by
American Revolution by The American
American Revolution by Kidport Reference Library
American Revolution by Social Studies for Kids
American Revolution by the History Place
The American Revolution:  Lighting Freedom's Flame
American Revolution Timeline
Battles of the American Revolution by The American
Battles of the American Revolution by The Patriot Resource
Boston Massacre by U.S. History
Boston Massacre Historical Society
Boston Tea Party by KidzPast
Boston Tea Party Historical Society
Boston Tea Party by U.S. History
Declaration of Independence by Congress for Kids

Fast Facts Resources
The History Place


]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 18:40:51 -0500
Ancient Aztec











1.   Aztec" refers exclusively to the people of Tenochtitlan.  This city was located on an island
in Lake Texcoco . The first ruler was Acamapichtli (1376-1396).  He guided early construction of the city.  
The last and 11th ruler, Cuauhtemoc (1520-1525), who was governing when the Spanish destroyed 

Tenochtitlan and the Aztec empire ended.

2.   Several types of money were in regular use; small purchases were made with cacao beans and
larger purchases were made with cotton cloth called quachtli.

3.   Parents taught children responsibility, citizenship, and life-skills - harsh punishments 
were handed out if child disobeyed - children of noble class attended calmecac (school) 
and the workers’ children attended telpochcalli and were taught occupational skills, 
warfare, history, good citizenship, religion but girls were trained for marriage.

4.   Maize (yellow corn) was main food source along with avocados, tomatoes, tamales, tortillas,
vegetables, meat, corn, chili peppers, squash, and chocolate.

5.   Children played tlachtli – a ball game for teams much like a combination  of basketball and
soccer and patolli – a gambling game played with dried beans and pebbles.

6.   Harsh laws maintained order where the emperor would act as judge and the citizens would act
as the jury.

7.   N’ahuatl is a system of hundreds of pictures that created an alphabet and scribes and priests
were the only ones who could write.

8.   War was a big part of the culture and all boys were trained to fight.

9.   Aztecs used two different calendars, one measured time, while the other was used to fix
religious festivals.

10.   Religion was very important part of Aztec life and music was a huge part of religious ceremonies
(and story-telling) - the instruments they
used were shells, rattles, whistles, horns, bells and drums.

Aztec Gods: (having many gods and goddesses is called polytheastic)

Chalchiuhtlicue – goddess of the lakes and streams
Chantico – goddess of the hearth
Chicomecoatl – goddess of maize
Coatlicue – goddess for the pain of life
Huehuetectim - god of fire
Huitzilopochtli – god of war, sun and the nation
Mictlantecuhtl – god of the dead
Quetzalcoatl - god of knowledge, creation, priesthood, and wind
Tezcatlipoca – god of magic, war and death
Tezcatlipoca – god of speech and language
Tlaloc – god of rain
Tloque Nahuaque - god of everywhere, the one supreme force, both male and female
Xipe Totec – god of spring and new life, god of suffering 
Xochipilli - 
prince of flowers, god of dawn, dance and love


Fast Facts Resources
Ancient Aztec, Olmec and Mesoamerica
Ancient Scripts
Aztecs: The Basics

]]> (Jan Belzer) History Fri, 23 Mar 2007 12:19:35 -0500
Ancient China




1.   Modern humans first came to China from Central Asia or India about 50,000 BC.
They were Stone Age people, who lived in caves with their dogs and wore fur and leather.
They hunted and gathered their food.

2.   Around 4000 BC, these people were starting to farm rice and raise chicken and sheep.
Around 3000 BC, they were using pottery and living in houses.   Soon afterward, they learned
from Central Asian people how to use horses to pull chariots on wheels. By 2000 BC,
Chinese people had entered the Bronze Age and had begun to use writing.

3.   About 1800 BC, the Shang Dynasty conquered most of China and ruled it under one Emperor.  
From this point on, Chinese history is measured in dynasties.  A dynasty is one family of related rulers.

4.   Chinese civilization began along the Yangtze River and grew into one of the world's 
most powerful societies. What makes the civilization unique in world history is its 
ability to continue
through over 4,000 years to the present century.

5.   The ancient Chinese invented many things we use today, including paper, silk,
matches, wheelbarrows, gunpowder, the decimal system, the waterwheel, the sundial,
astronomy, porcelain china, lacquer paint, pottery wheel, fireworks, paper money,
the compass, the seismograph, tangrams, medicines, dominoes, jump rope, kites,
tea ceremony, folding umbrella, ink, calligraphy, animal harness, playing cards, printing,
the abacus, wallpaper, the crossbow, and ice cream.

6.   China is very old. Its written history goes back 3,500 years. 

7.   The Republic of China succeeded the Ch'ing Dynasty. It ruled mainland China from 1912 to 1949
and has ruled Taiwan (along with several islands of Fujian) since 1945.

8.  The People's Republic of China was proclaimed in the aftermath of the Communist Party's triumph
in the Chinese Civil War by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949.

9.  In the early years of the People's Republic, religious belief or practice was often discouraged
because it was regarded by the government as backwards and superstitious.  Some Communist leaders had
been critical of religious institutions. During the Cultural Revolution, religion was condemned as feudalistic
and thousands of religious buildings were looted and destroyed. These feelings began to relax in th  1970s,
with the end of the Cultural Revolution. The 1978 Constitution of the People
's Republic of China
guarantees freedom of religion with a number of restrictions.

10.   China's Great Wall is the world's longest architectural structure and is widely renowned as one of the seven great wonders of the world. The wall stretches 6,700 kilometers (4,163 miles) from the Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu Province to the Shanhaiguan Pass in Hebei Province. It took over 2,000 years to build. The Great Wall has been restored and lengthened time and time again. The later walls have annexes such as castles, watch towers and beacon towers. The wall that we see today is primarily the result of a restoration that took place during the Ming Dynasty.  The Great Wall of China is the only man-made structure that can be seen from outer space.


Ancient China
Ancient China by BrainPop
Ancient China by Kidipedia
Ancient Chinese Dynasties
Chinese Inventions
Civilizations of China by
Exploring Ancient China
History of China
Maps of Ancient China by China Highlights
The Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China Facts for Kids

Fast Facts Resources

Ancient China
The Great Wall of China Facts for Kids
Ancient China by BrainPop



]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 18:49:12 -0500
Ancient Egypt






1.  The story of ancient Egypt has survived for thousands of years. Ancient Egypt was one
of the greatest civilizations of the past. The monuments and tombs of their Pharaohs continue to stand  today.
They are over 4,000 years old. 

2.  A good portion of the Old Testament takes place in or around Egypt. Egypt also plays a major role in the 
life of many Biblical people from Moses and Joseph to Jesus.

3.  Egypt is situated in the northeast corner of the Africa.

4.  A large river called the River Nile flows through the country into the Mediterranean Sea. It flows for
960 miles (1545 km).  This river allowed the Ancient Egyptian civilization to survive and grow.  
All of Egypt depended on the Nile for water, food and transportation. The Nile also provided the
ancient Egyptians with fertile land which helped them to grow their crops and raise their animals.  
The Ancient Egyptians 
lived along the banks of the river Nile in Egypt. Farmers first settled in Egypt
along the River Nile around 5000 B.C.

5.  Egypt is mainly made up of hot deserts and receives little rainfall. Without the River Nile,
the area would be entirely desert.  Before modern dams were built the Nile River would flood
each year coating the land on either side of the river with thick back mud. This mud was ideal
for growing crops, because it made the ground very fertile.

6.  The people in Ancient Egypt divided Egypt into two areas. The 'red land' was the deserts 
protecting Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighbouring
ountries and invading armies. The black land was the fertile land (near the Nile River)where
the ancient Egyptians grew their crops.

7.  Two separate kingdoms (ruled by different kings) developed along the Nile River. The kingdom
in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown and the kingdom
in Lower Egypt was called the red crown. In about 3200 B. C. the pharaoh of the north
conquered the south and Egypt became united. The pharaoh's name was King Narmer or Menes.
Menes built a new capital city called Memphis. In the Greek language
the word Memphis meant "Balance of the Two Lands."

8.   The people of Ancient Egypt mummified the bodies of their dead.  They would remove
the internal organs and use oils on the body.  They would wrap the body in cloth.  
Items belonging to the dead person would be buried with them and also things that
were believed to be needed in the after life.  Some of the Pharaohs would build elaborate tombs
called pyramids.  They would be buried with their riches.  Over the years,
many of these tombs have been robbed and destroyed, but some have been found
and preserved by archaeologists.

9. The Ancient Egyptians were plytheastic which means they believed in many gods and goddesses.
Some gods and goddesses offered protection to the people, some took care of them when they died.
Many controlled the weather and all were thought to make life run more smoothly if they were worshipped. 

10.  The Ancient Egyptian form of writing was known as hieroglyphics.  Hieroglyphics were pictures that
represented words or phrases.  The pictures told a story, just like modern letters, when put together, form
words and words form sentences. The sentences give information or tell a story.







King Tut by National Geographic






Fast Facts Resources
The Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs
Ancient Egypt for Kids by
Daily Life in ancient Egypt by National Geographic


]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 18:58:18 -0500
Ancient Greece











1.  The earliest Greek civilizations thrived nearly 4,000 years ago. The term "Ancient Greece"
refers to the period of history that lasted from 750 BC (the archaic period) to 146 BC
(the Roman conquest). Ancient Greece 
is the culture that  provided the foundation for
Western Civilization.

2.  The Greeks were the first to have a democratic government.

3.  The ancient Greeks did not have one king or queen. They lived in city-states. Each city-state
was a separate
political unit. Each city-state had its own laws and government. There were
over 100 city-states in Ancient Greece,
and they could not get along with each other.
The two most powerful city states were Athens and Sparta. 
They were very different.
In Athens, the focus was on education and the arts.  Sparta's focus was on the military. 

4.  On top of the tallest hill in each city-state the Greeks built a collection buildings
called an acropolis.
The acropolis was used for three things:  religious festivals, banks
and a fortress.

5.  The first Olympic games were held in Ancient Greece almost 3000 years ago (776 BC)
at the Greek city of Olympia.

6.  The Ancient Greeks played an important part in the development of the alphabet.
The first two letters of the
Greek alphabet - alpha and beta - have given us the word
'alphabet'.  There are 24 letters in the modern Greek Alphabet.
They have been used since
in the 8th to 9th century BC.  The letters are:  Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, Epsilon, Zeta,

Eta, Theta, Iota, Kappa, Lambda, Mu, Nu Xi, Omicron, Pi, Rho, Sigma, Tau, Upsilon,
Phi, Chi, Psi, Omega. 
The Greeks were the first to develop an alphabet with vowels.

7.  Slaves were very important to ancient Greek daily life. Slaves cleaned and cooked.
They also worked in the fields,
shops, mines, factories and on ships. Even the police force
in ancient Athens was made up of slaves.

8. In Greece the men ran the government. They spent a lot of their time out of the house
while involved in politics.
Men also spent time in the fields overseeing the crops.
They sailed, hunted, and traded. All of these activities took the
men away from home.
Men enjoyed wrestling, horseback riding, and the Olympic Games. Men had parties in which

the women were not allowed to attend.

9. In most city-states, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly ever left the house.
They sent slaves to the market.
The women were allowed to attend weddings, funerals,
and some religious festivals. Their job was to run the house and bear
children. Greek women
supervised slaves who did all the cooking, cleaning, and tending of the crops. Male slaves guarded

the women when the men were away. Girls did not go to school. They learned only the basics of
reading and math at home.
Girls were taught how to run a house. Women lived in a special section
of the house called the gynaeceum.

10.  The ancient Greeks were polytheastic, which means they had many gods and goddesses.
They were known as the
Olympians Greek Myths are all that’s left of the ancient Greek religion.  
The Greek Myths are our window into Ancient Greece.



Fast Facts Resources
Kidipedia:  Ancient Greece 
Mr. Donn:  Ancient Greece 
Ancient Greece:  by Mandy Barrow 



]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 19:36:48 -0500
Ancient Inca







1.   The Inca Empire existed in Peru. It ran along the Pacific coast and Andean highlands from the northern border of what is today called Ecuador to the Maule River in Chile. There were over a million people who were Inca.

2.   The man who established the Inca Empire was Manco Capac in 1438. Manco Capac declared himself Sapa Inca, divine son of the Sun. He was a skilled warrior and leader who exercised absolute power. Most historians agree there were thirteen emperors during the time when the Inca Empire existed. They were sometimes called, "The Inca".

3.   The Inca originated in the village of Paqari-tampu, about 15 miles south of Cuzco.

4.   The official language of the Inca was Quecha. The Inca had no written language. They kept their history and stories alive through stories that were passed from father to son.

5.   The Ancient Inca built aquaducts, cities, temples, fortresses, tunnels, suspension bridges, and 2, 250 miles of roads. The Inca had a great understanding of mathematics and agriculture. They also knew about hydraulics, astronomy, architecture and military strategy.

6.   The Inca had skills in music, textiles, wood and stone carving, art and poetry. The Inca were also highly skilled in working with all types of metals.  Their pottery was simple, practical and beautiful. The Ancient Inca grew corn, potatoes, coffee, and other grains.  They also created woven baskets and woodwind instruments.

7.   The Inca pyramids were built with mud bricks of clay that were mixed with dry straw from the corn plant.  When the Incas found a pyramid that had been built by another culture, they would build their own Inca temple on top of it. Inca gold was not inherited by a person's decendents, so when somebody died, the gold was placed inside the grave. 

8.   The Incas worshipped many gods and goddesses. The major Incan god was the god of nature, Viracocha, the creator. Another god was Inti, the sun god. Gold was the symbol of Inti. The sun god temple is the most important structure in Cuzco, the major city of the Incas. The Incas believed Inti was the father of Incan rulers. They worshipped the ruler as a living god. Major Incan goddesses included those of the earth and the sea. The Incas also worshipped many lesser gods and goddresses. These included the gods of the moon, thunder, rain, stars and rainbows.

9.   The Ancient Inca's developed important medical practices. They preformed surgery on human skulls and used anesthesia during surgery. Inca medicine included treating physical and emotional problems.

10.   In 1532 the Spanish arrived in Peru and by 1535 the Inca Empire was gone.





Fast Facts Resources
The Inca Empire by Mr. Donn
Discovery Adventures
Rise of the Incas by PBS


]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 20:26:38 -0500
Ancient Mayan










1.   The Ancient Mayan lived in the Yucatán around 2600 B.C. Today, this area is southern Mexico,
Guatemala, northern Belize and western Honduras. By 250 A.D., the Ancient Maya were at their
peak of power.

2.   The Maya had no central king ruling their huge empire. Instead, there were as many as 20 separate areas,
similar to ancient Greece city-states. Each major city had its own ruler and noble class supported by
smaller cities and the surrounding farms and villages.

3.   The Ancient Maya developed the science of astronomy, calendar systems and hieroglyphic writing. 
They were also known for creating elaborate ceremonial architecture, such as pyramids, temples,
palaces and observatories. These structures were all built without metal tools.

4.   The Mayan people were also skilled farmers. In order to farm, they had to clear huge sections of
tropical rain forest. Groundwater was scarce in these areas, so they had to build large underground 
reservoirs to store the rainwater.

5.   The Maya were skilled weavers and potters. They also cleared routes through jungles and swamps
to create trade routes.  This allowed them to sell and trade the goods they had made for goods they needed.

6.   The Maya writing system was made up of 800 glyphs. Some of the glyphs were pictures and 
others represented sounds. They chiseled the glyphs into stone and inside codices. Codices were 
books that were folded like an accordion. The pages were fig bark covered in white lime and bound 
in jaguar skins. The Maya wrote hundreds of these books. They contained information on history, medicine, 
astronomy and their religion. The Spanish missionaries burned all but four of these books.

7.   The Ancient Mayans were a very religious people. Mayan actions were based on rituals and ceremonies.
The Maya had many different gods.  They also had rituals.  One of those rituals was human sacrifice. 
The Mayan Kings were considered to be direct descendants of the Mayan Gods. Mayan religion was divided
into three parts with earth as one part, the level above the earth as another part, and the level below the earth
as the third part.  The level above the earth was like the Christian heaven and the level below the earth was 
like the Christian's hell.

8.   The Ancient Maya had a class society. At the top were the nobles and priests. Their middle class was
made up of warriors, craftsmen and traders. The farmers, workers and slaves were at the bottom.

9.   The Mayas wove beautiful fabrics and designed musical instruments like horns, drums and castanets.
They also carved huge statues. Archaeologists can tell a great deal about the ancient Maya from their
wonderful pottery and clay figures. The art they created honored their leaders, gods, and their daily life.

10.   About AD 300 to 900  the major centers of the Mayan civilization were Palenque, Tikal, and Copán.
Something happened and these places were mysteriously abandoned. Many theories have been considered
such as disease, invasion by another culture, natural disaster or collapse of their trade routes which would
have destroyed their economy.  No one knows for sure what happened.


Ancient Maya Empire by Mr. Donn
Ancient Maya History
Ancient Mayan Civilization
Ancient Mayan Life
Ancient Mayan Ruins
Ancient Mayan Ruins at Chichen Itza 
Ancient Mesoamerican Writing
Archaeoastronomy & Search for Ancient Observatories
Chichen Itza: Tour
Chichen Itza: A Pictorial Tour 
Cities of Ancient Maya 
Collapse: Why Do Civilizations Fall? 
Explore the Sacred Sites
Explore the Sacred Sites and Ancient Civilizations
Major Mayan Sites
Maya Adventure
Maya Research Program 
Mayan Ruins 1
Mayan Architecture 
Mayan Astronomy 
Mayan Calendar 
Mayan Calendar Tools
Mayan Civilization
Mayan Esteem Project
Mayan Kids
Mayan Ruins 
Mundo Maya
Mythology of the Mayas
Palenque:  Secret City of the Maya

Quiz Your Noodle by National Geographic
Ruins of Xel-Ha
Spirit of Ancient Maya

The Maya
The Maya by Kidipedia

Fast Facts Resources
Mundo Maya 
Mythology of the Maya
The Maya by Kidipedia


]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 20:44:26 -0500
Ancient Mesopotamia



1.   Most of Ancient Mesopotamia was located in what today is the country of Iraq. Mesopotamia
was known as the land between two rivers. The Tigris River ran along the north and the Euphrates River
ran along the south. These rivers flow into the Persian Gulf. The area is also known as "The Fertile Crescent".
Mesopotamia was approximately 300 miles long and 150 miles wide.

2.   Ancient Mesopotamia is considered the cradle of civilization, because the people of this culture developed
many things such as government, written language, religion, agriculture, and cities.  The Ancient Mesopotamians
developed sanitation techniques, the "Pythagorean theorem, and glass. They revolutionized transportation
around 3500 BC by inventing the wheel and were among the first to harness the wind
as an energy source by using the sail.

3. The land of Ancient Mesopotamia experienced many floods, but today the area is mostly desert.
The flooding was a challenge to the farmers.  They had to learn to control and work with it. The invention
of irrigation was extremely important, because it allowed the people to plant during the hot, dry season.
The fertile land produced crops such as many fruits, vegetables, flax, barley, wheat, and sesame. Sheep, cattle, goats,
and pigs were being raised by the farmers.  The seeder plow, invented by the Mesopotamians, was a major
achievement. It allowed farmers to plow their land and seed it at the same time.

4.   Ancient Mesopotamia is where the world's first cities appeared between 4000 - 3500 BC.
Before this time, most of the people lived on farms in the country. City life allowed the people
to work together for the common good. It is believed an ancient site, called Eridu, was the first city that was ever created.

5.  The Ancient Mesopotamians worshipped hundreds of gods. Ordinary people depended
on a relationship with their own personal god - like a guardian angel - who protected them
and talked to the other gods on their behalf.   Every city had its own god or goddess.
There were also gods that were connected to different professions. The major gods were:

* Anu was the father of the gods and the god of the sky
* Enlil was the god of the air
* Utu was the sun god and the lord of truth and justice
* Nanna was the moon god
* Inanna was the goddess of love and war
* Ninhursag was the goddess of earth
* Enki was the god of fresh water as well as the lord of wisdom and magic

6.  The Sumerians of Ancient Mesopotamia are credited with inventing the earliest form of writing.
The writings on tablets were of simple pictures, or pictograms, which represented an object or an idea.
Clay is a difficult material to draw on so the Mesopotamians eventually reduced pictograms
into a series of wedge-shaped signs that they pressed into clay with a stylus.
This wedge-shaped writing is called cuneiform. This invention of writing was a huge advancement,
because it allowed information to be carried from place to place accurately. 

7.   The Ancient Mesopotamians developed the arch and column. They were masters
of construction using bricks made of mud.   Brick-making was a major Mesopotamian industry,
especially in the south, where wood was in short supply and there was no stone. Over the centuries,
rains and shifting sands destroyed much of southern Mesopotamia's mud-brick architecture.
Only crumbled mounds remain as evidence of the great cities that once stood in the deserts of southern Iraq.

8.  The Mesopotamian woman's role was strictly defined. Most girls were trained from childhood
for the traditional roles of wife, mother, and housekeeper. They learned how to grind grain, 
how to cook and make beverages, especially beer, and how to spin and weave cloth for clothing.
Around twelve years of age, a young girl was considered ready for marriage.

9.   During the earliest years of recorded history, the Ancient Mesopotamians were experimenting
with ways to count, measure, and solve mathematical problems. They were the first to give
a number a place value and to recognize the concept of zero.  
The ancient Mesopotamians did not use money,
so they developed a system of weights to buy and sell things. They used barley as a measure.
Other standard units of weight were the shekel, the mina, and the talent or load.
Eventually, silver replaced barley as the medium of exchange.

10.   The Ancient Mesopotamians discovered that by observing the movements of the moon, sun and stars,
they could measure time, which was important for planting crops and for holding religious festivals.   


Fast Facts Resources
Ancient Mesopotamia for Kids
Mesopotamia:  The Bristish Museum
Ancient Mesopotamia

]]> (Jan Belzer) History Sun, 25 Mar 2007 20:51:45 -0500
Ancient Rome









1.  History of Ancient Rome is usually divided into three main periods: before the rise of Rome,
the Roman Republic, and the Roman Empire. The Empire is usually divided up according to who was emperor.
The Roman Empire lasted for over seven centuries, and was probably the largest and most well known.

2.  The Ancient Romans spoke Latin.  Latin influenced many European languages such as French, Spanish,
Italian, Portuguese and English.   Latin was also the official language of the Catholic Church for many years.

3.  The first inhabitants of the area, that is now Rome, lived on Palatine Hill, about one thousand years BC.  
Evidence suggests that they were farmers.

4.  The Ancient Romans "borrowed" many things from the Amcient Greeks including their gods and goddesses.
The Romans just renamed them.

5.  In 500 BC, the Roman Empire became a republic and showed their power by beginning to conquer most of Italy.
The population of Rome reached one million by 50 BC.

6.  Ancient Rome was ruled by 300 senators who were elected to the Senate for life.

7.  When we think of Roman clothing, we think of togas. However, only citizens could wear them. 
Foreigners and slaves were forbidden from wearing these garments, and there were many slaves in Ancient Rome. 
Senators were the only people allowed to wear togas edged in purple cloth, and Emperors were the only ones allowed
to wear all purple.  Instead of crowns, Roman emperors wore laurel leaves on their heads.

8.  Roman Emperors had a great deal of power and control. They were responsible as the head of the judicial system
and courts.
They also controlled the Empire's religion. They were the commander and chief of the military. 
Augustus Caesar, who instituted the famous Pax Romana (Roman Peace) used the title of Senator, not Emperor.

9.  Probably the most famous Roman figure was Julius Caesar. During his lifetime, he had held just about every
important title in the Roman Republic including consul, tribune of the people, high commander of the army, and high priest.
He made a lot of positive changes, and the people loved Caesar. They wanted to see him in a strong position of power so
that he could solve the problems of crime, hunger, unemployment and taxes. One of the laws of the original Twelve Tables
was that no general could enter the city with his army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. In 49 BC, he entered Rome with the
Roman Legion, and took over the government. The Senate was furious.  Caesar was assassinated by Marcus Brutus on
March 15, 44 BC.

10.  In 410 AD, Rome was sacked by tribes from the north.  However, the last Roman emperor ruled until 476 AD.
At that time, the Roman Empire came to an end.




]]> (Jan Belzer) History Mon, 26 Mar 2007 15:41:03 -0500
Black History


















1.  In 1619, the first African slaves arrived in Virginia. These people were taken from their
homeland against their will.

2.  In 1787, slavery is made illegal in the Northwest Territory, but the U.S Constitution states
that Congress may not ban the slave trade until 1808.

3.  In 1793, Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin greatly increased the need for slave labor.

4.  In 1793, a federal fugitive slave law is enacted, providing for the return slaves who had escaped
and crossed state lines.

5.  In 1808, Congress bans the importation of slaves from Africa.

6.  In 1820, the Missouri Compromise bans slavery north of the southern boundary of Missouri.

7.  In 1849, Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery and becomes one of the most effective and
celebrated leaders of the Underground Railroad.

8.  In 1857, the Dred Scott case holds that Congress does not have the right to ban slavery
in states and, furthermore, that slaves are not citizens.

9.  In 1863, President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation, declaring "that all persons held as slaves"
within the Confederate states "are, and henceforward shall be free." Then in 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment
to the Constitution is ratified, giving blacks the right to vote.

10.  John F. Kennedy was president during the 1960's Civil Rights Movement.  He helped pass laws to
make sure all black Americans could vote and get a good education.  These laws ended segregation
in schools, jobs, restaurants, and theaters. Dr. Martin Luther King and many other leaders worked
very hard to advance the civil rights movement. These efforts will continue until black people have the same
rights and advantages as all other citizens. Today, all of the hard work has provided
the foundation for the citizens of the United States to elects the first black president, Barack Obama.



African American History
African American Mosaic
African American Odyssey
Black History by Kidipedia
Black History Month
Black History Month by Fact Monster
Black History Month by
Celebrate Black History
Creative African American History and Heritage
Enchanted Learning Black History Month
Encyclopaedia Britannica Guide to Black History
Gateway to African American History
History Channel: Great African Americans
Informed Resource Documents
Museum of Afro-American History
National Archives
Uncle Tom's Cabin
University of Illinois - Black History Month

Fast Facts Resources
National Archives
African American History

]]> (Jan Belzer) History Mon, 26 Mar 2007 15:50:09 -0500